The goal of the present study was to describe a case of perilymphatic fistula (PLF) of the round window (RW) that occurred after sneezing, along with a review of the literature. We report a case of PLF of RW, which was provoked by sneezing, and its consequent medical and surgical treatments. With
respect to the review of the literature, articles were initially selected based on their titles or abstracts, followed by methodological evaluation. The patient underwent an explorative tympanotomy (ET) with packaging of RW with the pericondrium, following which the patient’s complaints regarding
vertigo and imbalance disappeared, but the severe sensorineural hearing loss persisted. For the literature review, five references were selected. These studies showed a great variety in the clinical presentation and healing of symptoms. Sneezing represents a rare but well-recognized cause of PLF, as reported in our case. The correct selection of patients who should undergo ET and an early surgical repair of PLF are mandatory for better outcomes, especially in case of hearing.